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  World  

 

This page was last updated on 2 November, 2006


Map of World



   Introduction    World
 
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Globally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; (g) increased concerns about the environment, including loss of forests, shortages of energy and water, the decline in biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower. The planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion in 1820, to 2 billion in 1930, 3 billion in 1960, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1988, and 6 billion in 2000. For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances in medicine) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).
   Geography    World Top of Page
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Physical Map of the World, Political Map of the World, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 510.072 million sq km
land: 148.94 million sq km
water: 361.132 million sq km
note: 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
land area about 16 times the size of the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
the land boundaries in the world total 250,708 km (not counting shared boundaries twice); two nations, China and Russia, each border 14 other countries
note: 44 nations and other areas are landlocked, these include: Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe; two of these, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan, are doubly landlocked
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
356,000 km
note: 98 nations and other entities are islands that border no other countries, they include: American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Baker Island, Barbados, Bassas da India, Bermuda, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Clipperton Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Cook Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Europa Island, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Howland Island, Iceland, Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Japan, Jarvis Island, Jersey, Johnston Atoll, Juan de Nova Island, Kingman Reef, Kiribati, Madagascar, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Paracel Islands, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tromelin Island, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Taiwan
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
a variety of situations exist, but in general, most countries make the following claims measured from the mean low-tide baseline as described in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: territorial sea - 12 nm, contiguous zone - 24 nm, and exclusive economic zone - 200 nm; additional zones provide for exploitation of continental shelf resources and an exclusive fishing zone; boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
a wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates - bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones - that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m
note: in the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Pacific Ocean
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
the rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 13.31%
permanent crops: 4.71%
other: 81.98% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,770,980 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13-billion-year age estimated for the universe
   People    World Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,525,170,264 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 27.4% (male 919,219,446/female 870,242,271)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,152,066,888/female 2,100,334,722)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 213,160,216/female 270,146,721)
note: some countries do not maintain age structure information, thus a slight discrepancy exists between the total world population and the total for world age structure (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27.6 years
male: 27 years
female: 28.2 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.14% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.05 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 48.87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 64.77 years
male: 63.16 years
female: 66.47 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.59 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christians 33.03% (of which Roman Catholics 17.33%, Protestants 5.8%, Orthodox 3.42%, Anglicans 1.23%), Muslims 20.12%, Hindus 13.34%, Buddhists 5.89%, Sikhs 0.39%, Jews 0.23%, other religions 12.61%, non-religious 12.03%, atheists 2.36% (2004 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Mandarin Chinese 13.69%, Spanish 5.05%, English 4.84%, Hindi 2.82%, Portuguese 2.77%, Bengali 2.68%, Russian 2.27%, Japanese 1.99%, Standard German 1.49%, Wu Chinese 1.21% (2004 est.)
note: percents are for "first language" speakers only
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82%
male: 87%
female: 77%
note: over two-thirds of the world's 785 million illiterate adults are found in only eight countries (India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Egypt); of all the illiterate adults in the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated in three regions, South and West Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab states, where around one-third of the men and half of all women are illiterate (2005 est.)
   Government    World Top of Page
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
272 nations, dependent areas, and other entities
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
all members of the UN are parties to the statute that established the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court
   Economy    World Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Global output rose by 4.4% in 2005, led by China (9.3%), India (7.6%), and Russia (5.9%). The other 14 successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, in the 7% range of growth. Growth results posted by the major industrial countries varied from no gain for Italy to a strong gain by the United States (3.5%). The developing nations also varied in their growth results, with many countries facing population increases that erode gains in output. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, in Iraq, in Indonesia, and in Canada. Externally, the central government is losing decisionmaking powers to international bodies, notably the EU. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote insufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations. The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 accentuated a further growing risk to global prosperity, illustrated, for example, by the reallocation of resources away from investment to anti-terrorist programs. The opening of war in March 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq added new uncertainties to global economic prospects. After the coalition victory, the complex political difficulties and the high economic cost of establishing domestic order in Iraq became major global problems that continued into 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
GWP (gross world product): $60.63 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$43.07 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 32%
services: 64% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.001 billion (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 42%
industry: 21%
services: 37% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 29.4% (2000 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 20% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from declining prices in Japan to hyperinflation in one Third World countries (Zimbabwe); inflation rates have declined for most countries for the last several years, held in check by increasing international competition from several low wage countries (2005 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental problems
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.54 trillion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.45 trillion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
537 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
545.2 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
79.65 million bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80.1 million bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.349 trillion bbl (1 January 2002 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.674 trillion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.675 trillion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
667.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
696 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
174.6 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.33 trillion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 15.6%, Germany 7.4%, China 5.7%, France 4.9%, UK 4.7%, Japan 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.3 trillion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 9.3%, US 9%, Germany 9%, Japan 6.1%, France 4.2% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$36.89 trillion
note: this figure is the sum total of all countries' external debt, both public and private (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$154 billion official development assistance (ODA) (2004)
   Communications    World Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,263,367,600 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,168,433,600 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,018,057,389 (2005)
   Transportation    World Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49,024 (2006)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2,021 (2006)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,115,205 km
broad gauge: 257,481 km
standard gauge: 671,413 km
narrow gauge: 186,311 km (2003)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 32,345,165 km
paved: 19,403,061 km
unpaved: 12,942,104 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
671,886 km (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,222 ships (1000 GRT or over) (2006)
   Military    World Top of Page
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
roughly 2% of gross world product (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    World Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 329 international land boundaries separate the 193 independent states and 73 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; maritime states have claimed limits and have so far established over 130 maritime boundaries and joint development zones to allocate ocean resources and to provide for national security at sea; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; most disputes over the alignment of political boundaries are confined to short segments and are today less common and less hostile than borderland, resource, and territorial disputes; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries, however, encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation around the world; disputes over islands at sea or in rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflict; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land; nonetheless, most nations cooperate to clarify their international boundaries and to resolve territorial and resource disputes peacefully; regional discord today prevails not so much between the armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope with resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that in December 2004 there was a global population of 9.2 million refugees, the lowest number in 25 years, and as many as 25 million IDPs in over 49 countries (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
cocaine: worldwide coca cultivation in 2004 amounted to 166,200 hectares; Colombia produced slightly more than two-thirds of the worldwide crop, followed by Peru and Bolivia; potential pure cocaine production of 645 metric tons in 2004 marked the lowest level of Andean cocaine production in the past 10 years; Colombia conducts aggressive coca eradication campaign, but both Peruvian and Bolivian Governments are hesitant to eradicate coca in key growing areas; 376 metric tons of export-quality cocaine are documented to have been seized in 2003, and 26 metric tons disrupted (jettisoned or destroyed); consumption of export quality cocaine is estimated to have been 800 metric tons
opiates: worldwide illicit opium poppy cultivation reached 258,630 hectares in 2004; potential opium production of 5,444 metric tons was highest total recorded since estimates began in mid-1980s; Afghanistan is world's primary opium producer, accounting for 91% of the global supply; Southeast Asia - responsible for 7% of global opium - continued to diminish in importance in the world opium market; Latin America produced 2% of global opium, but most refined into heroin destined for United States; if all opium processed into pure heroin, the potential global production would be 632 metric tons of heroin in 2004

This page was last updated on 2 November, 2006


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  Canada  
Flag of Canada
Click to enlarge
 

This page was last updated on 2 November, 2006


Map of Canada



   Introduction    Canada
 
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. Canada also faces questions about integrity in government following revelations regarding a corruption scandal in the federal government that has helped revive the fortunes of separatists in predominantly francophone Quebec.
   Geography    Canada  
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
60 00 N, 95 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
North America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
somewhat larger than the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
202,080 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.57%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 94.78% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
7,850 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
   People    Canada
 
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33,098,932 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,992,811/female 2,848,388)
15-64 years: 69% (male 11,482,452/female 11,368,286)
65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,883,008/female 2,523,987) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.9 years
male: 37.8 years
female: 39.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.88% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.78 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 80.22 years
male: 76.86 years
female: 83.74 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.61 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Canada  
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 40 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends first Sunday in November; note - beginning in 2007, DST will begin the second Sunday in March
note: Canada is divided into six time zones
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (independence recognized)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 103, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Bill GRAHAM]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Raleigh, San Diego
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
   Economy    Canada
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs more than 85% of Canadian exports. Canada is the US' largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.111 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.035 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$33,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 29.4%
services: 68.4% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.3 million (December 2005)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.8% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
15.9%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
33.1 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $159.6 billion
expenditures: $152.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2004)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
566.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
520.9 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
22 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
33 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
963,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
178.9 billion bbl
note: includes oil sands (2004 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
165.8 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90.95 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
91.52 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.73 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.673 trillion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$24.96 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$364.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 84.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.8% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$317.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 56.7%, China 7.8%, Mexico 3.8% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$33.02 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$439.8 billion (30 November 2005)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $2.6 billion (2004)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Canadian dollar (CAD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Canada
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.276 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.6 million (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ca
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,525,392 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.9 million (2005)
   Transportation    Canada
 
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,337 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 509
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 151
914 to 1,523 m: 248
under 914 m: 77 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 828
1,524 to 2,437 m: 66
914 to 1,523 m: 355
under 914 m: 407 (2006)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
319 (2006)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2003)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 48,467 km
standard gauge: 48,467 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (including 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2005)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
631 km
note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 173 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,129,243 GRT/2,716,340 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 10, chemical tanker 9, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 8
foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 111 (Australia 1, Bahamas 18, Barbados 8, Cambodia 6, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 28, Liberia 2, Malta 18, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 4, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, US 4, Vanuatu 5) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Fraser River Port, Halifax, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver
   Military    Canada
 
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Canada Command (homeland security) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise approximately 11% of Canada's armed forces (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 8,216,510
females age 16-49: 8,034,939 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 6,740,490
females age 16-49: 6,580,868 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 223,821
females age 16-49: 212,900 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Canada
 
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Illicit drugs:
 
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for ecstasy entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector

This page was last updated on 2 November, 2006


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